For integrated pest & disease management to be effective, cultural conditions (especially soils & fertilization) need to be addressed. When a tree is planted, the total biomass is about one pound. Ten years later a tree could weigh 300 or more pounds dry weight. All that biomass comes from the air, water and soil. Soil science pioneer William Albrecht said, “Food is fabricated fertility.” This presentation will address soils, fertilization, and nutritional aspects of pest & disease management in California orchards, so that growers can make informed decisions about inputs. The speaker will emphasize the implications of over-reliance on nitrogen, and the importance of nutrient balance in fruit trees.